转载请注明出处:http://blog.csdn.net/jeffleo/article/details/52266577

有必要多看几遍的

这里写图片描述
关于字符和字节,例如文本文件,XML这些都是用字符流来读取和写入。而如RAR,EXE文件,图片等非文本,则用字节流来读取和写入。

读写对象,传输对象在Java中很常使用,在javaBean中就经常用到。一般来说,对象要能被对写,自身要实现特定的接口,Serializable或Externalizable接口。

实现Serializable接口对象的读写

实现了Serializable的对象,会被全序列化,当我们在进行序列化时,一般对象中存在我们不需要序列化的数据。但Serializable会全序列化,影响效率,一般来说,可能并不是最好的选择。

class Person implements Serializable{ 
    private int age; 
    private String name; 
 
    public Person(int age, String name){ 
        this.age = age; 
        this.name = name; 
    } 
 
    @Override 
    public String toString(){ 
        return "[age:" + age + ",name:" + name + "]";  
    } 
} 
 
public class TestObject { 
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException { 
        String path = "F:/io/person.txt"; 
        ObjectOutputStream out = new ObjectOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(path)); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(20, "nick")); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(21, "liu")); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(22, "mike")); 
        out.close(); 
 
        ObjectInputStream in = new ObjectInputStream(new FileInputStream(path)); 
        for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {   
            System.out.println(in.readObject());   
         }   
        in.close(); 
    } 
}

结果为:

[age:20,name:nick] 
[age:21,name:liu] 
[age:22,name:mike]

transient使实现Serializable对象不全序列化

transient是一个关键字,配合Serializable使用,表示该数据不需要序列化。

class Person implements Serializable{ 
    private int age; 
    private transient String name;//注意这里使用了transient 
 
    public Person(int age, String name){ 
        this.age = age; 
        this.name = name; 
    } 
 
    @Override 
    public String toString(){ 
        return "[age:" + age + ",name:" + name + "]";  
    } 
} 
public class TestObject { 
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException { 
        String path = "F:/io/person.txt"; 
        ObjectOutputStream out = new ObjectOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(path)); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(20, "nick")); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(21, "liu")); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(22, "mike")); 
        out.close(); 
 
        ObjectInputStream in = new ObjectInputStream(new FileInputStream(path)); 
        for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {   
            System.out.println(in.readObject());   
         }   
        in.close(); 
    } 
}

结果为:

[age:20,name:null] 
[age:21,name:null] 
[age:22,name:null]

可见,name确实没有被序列化

实现Externalizable接口对象的局部数据读写

实现Externalizable,则必须实现writeExternal(ObjectOutput out)和readExternal(ObjectInput in)这两个方法,而这两个方法正是关键。

对于Serializable对象,对象不会调用它的构造器。但是Externalizable对象会调用它所有的默认构造器。而我们一般对对象初始化,不是在默认的构造器,这样的话,对象中的数据都没有初始化。

所以我们要在writeExternal中,写我们需要的数据,在readExternal中取我们需要的数据。

class Person implements Externalizable{ 
    private int age; 
    private String name; 
    private String address; 
 
    public Person(){ 
 
    } 
 
    public Person(int age, String name, String address){ 
        this.age = age; 
        this.name = name; 
        this.address = address; 
    } 
 
    @Override 
    public void writeExternal(ObjectOutput out) throws IOException { 
        out.writeInt(age); 
        out.writeObject(name); 
    } 
 
    @Override 
    public void readExternal(ObjectInput in) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException { 
        age = in.readInt(); 
        name = (String) in.readObject(); 
    } 
 
    @Override 
    public String toString(){ 
        return "[age:" + age + ",name:" + name + ",address:" + address + "]";  
    } 
} 
public class TestObject { 
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException { 
        String path = "F:/io/person.txt"; 
        ObjectOutputStream out = new ObjectOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(path)); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(20, "nick", "beijing")); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(21, "liu", "guangzhou")); 
        out.writeObject(new Person(22, "mike", "shanghai")); 
        out.close(); 
 
        ObjectInputStream in = new ObjectInputStream(new FileInputStream(path)); 
        for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {   
            System.out.println((Person) in.readObject()); 
         }   
        in.close(); 
    } 
}

结果为:

[age:20,name:nick,address:null] 
[age:21,name:liu,address:null] 
[age:22,name:mike,address:null]

可见,在writeExternal中,并没有写入address,因为我不需要它。所以我只读取到age和name。

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